Ya'qūb ibn al-Layth al-Saffār or Ya'qūb-i Layth-i Saffārī , born Rādmān pūr-i Māhak (October 25, 840 – June 5, 879), a Persian coppersmith, was the founder of the Saffarid dynasty of Sistan, with its capital at Zaranj (a city now in south-western Afghanistan). He ruled territories that are now in Iran and Afghanistan, as well as portions of western Pakistan and a small part of Iraq. He was succeeded by his brother, Amr ibn al-Layth. Ya'qub was born in 840 in a small town called Karnin (Qarnin), which was located east of Zaranj and west of Bost, in what is now Afghanistan. Information about his genealogy and social background is lacking. Clifford Edmund Bosworth explains that a number of Sunni sources were invariably hostile to Ya'qub because of the disrespect he showed toward the Abbasid caliph. "Some sources accused Ya'qub of being a Khariji, Ibn Khallikan labelled him a Christian, and Nizam al-Mulk claimed that he .converted to Ismailism". However, most sources agree on Ya'qub's ascetic lifestyle.